Windows has something called "Safe Mode". You usually see it when you don’t shut down Windows properly, then when you restart you’re prompted if you want to start in safe mode.
So what is safe mode? It’s basically Windows without all the frills, very simplified. It’s intended to help techies fix problems if Windows is broken.
There’s also an assumption that malware can’t hurt your computer if you start it in safe mode. This has been proven to be a false assumption. Malware can still run in safe mode.
To be protected from malware you need some common sense (you’ll get plenty of that from this site), and having a good anti-virus helps.